Mitosis



Mitosis is the process of cell division in eukaryotic cells. It primarily deals with the division of the nucleus. The division of the cytoplasm is called cytokinesis. There are four stages that make up mitosis: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
Interphase is the time spent between cell divisions.

Prophase

  • Chromosomes become visible
  • Centrioles move to opposite sides of cell
  • Spindle fibers form and begin to connect to centromeres of chromosomes
  • Nucleolus disappears
  • Nuclear envelope disappears
  • Chromosomes coil more tightly

Metaphase

  • Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
  • Spindle fibers fully connect to the centromere

Anaphase

  • Sister chromatids separate and form identical chromosomes
  • Chromosomes move to either side of the cell

Telophase

  • Chromosomes begin to disperse into two bunches of genetic material
  • Nuclear envelope forms around each cluster of chromosomes
  • Spindle fibers break
  • Nucleoli become visible in each cell

Interphase

Interphase is divided into three different phases: G1, S, and G2.

G1 Phase

  • Cells increase in size
  • Synthesis new proteins and organelles

S Phase

  • Chromosomes are replicated
  • DNA molecules synthesize
  • Key proteins made

G2 Phase

  • Organelles are produced
mitosis-cycai.gif

Cytokinesis

Animal Cells

  • Cell membrane is pulled inward
  • Forms cleavage furrow
  • cytoplasm pinches in two

Plant Cells

  • Cell plate forms between two nuclei
  • Cell plate forms membrane
  • Cell wall forms


All of this information can be found in the Biology textbook on pages 244-248.