800px-Mossopolis.jpg
moss growing in forest
Plant adaptations: Mosses, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms
*information in book can be found in chapter 22 (p. 550-572)

mosses

  • phylum: Byrophyta
  • well adapted to life in wet habitats
  • can grow in harsh environments
  • lack vascular tissues
  • dominant gametophyte stage



ferns
  • phylum: Pterophyta
  • seedless
  • true vascular tissues
  • large leaves called fronds
  • spores found on underside of fronds
  • dominant sporophyte stage

life_cycle_of_fern.jpg
life cycle of a fern



seed plants divided into 2 groups- gymnosperms and angiosperms

gymnosperms

  • bear seeds directly on surface of cones
  • include gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes, and conifers gymnosperm.jpg
  • reproduce with seeds that are exposed
  • gymnosperm = "naked seed"







angiosperms
  • unique reproductive organs- flowers
  • flowers attract animals (bees, moths, hummingbirds) that transport pollen from flower to flower
  • more effective than wind pollination of most gymnosperms
  • flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect seeds
  • angiosperms have fruit
  • animals eat & digest fruit and excrete seeds somewhere else- increases range plant inhabits
  • divided into monocots and dicots
  • woody and herbaceous stems
  • life spans: annual, bienniel, and perennial
    flower_parts.gif
    parts of a flower


angiosperm_parts.gif
angiosperm



























monocots_and_dicots.jpg
Monocots
  • 1 cotyledon
  • parallel venation
  • fibrous roots
  • flower parts in 3s
  • scattered vascular bundles

Dicots
  • 2 cotyledons
  • pinnate or palmate venation
  • flower parts in 4s or 5s
  • vascular bundles arranged in ring
  • taproot